General requirements (1910.22 and 437-002-0022)
- Workplaces, including passageways, storerooms, service rooms, and other walking-working surfaces, must be clean, orderly, and sanitary.
- Employees must have a safe way to access and exit all walking-working surfaces.
- Walking-working surfaces must be inspected regularly and kept safe.
- Three new Oregon-initiated rules include additional Oregon general requirements, ramps and runways for vehicles, and piers and wharves.
Ladders (1910.23 and 437-002-0026)
Ladders covered include portable ladders, job-made ladders, fixed ladders, mobile ladder stands, and mobile ladder stand platforms. Not included are ladders used in emergencies (such as firefighting, rescue, and law enforcement activities) and ladders that are an integral part of machines or equipment.
A new Oregon-initiated rule applies to the selection and use of portable ladders, including job-made ladders, in addition to the requirements in Ladders, 1910.23.
Step bolts and manhole steps (1910.24)
A step bolt is a bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member used for climbing or standing and as a handhold when climbing or standing.
Step bolts installed before Jan. 1, 2018, must be capable of supporting their maximum intended loads.
Step bolts installed on or after Jan. 1, 2018:
- Must be constructed of or coated with corrosion-resistant material if they are in areas where corrosion may occur.
- Must be capable of supporting at least four times their maximum intended loads.
Manhole steps are steps that are individually attached to, or set into, the wall of a manhole. Manhole steps must be inspected at the start of each work shift.
Manhole steps installed on or after Jan. 1, 2018, must meet specific requirements for slip resistance, corrosion resistance, width, and vertical spacing.
A stairway consists of risers and treads that connect one level with another, including the landings and platforms in between those levels. The term “stairs” and “stairway” are interchangeable. All stairways are covered by the requirements, except stairs on floating roof tanks and scaffolds, stairs designed into machines, and stairs on self-propelled motorized equipment.
Stairways must be fixed or permanently installed at an angle between 30 and 50 degrees from horizontal unless an employer can demonstrate that they are not feasible; then, spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs are acceptable alternatives.
Stairways built on or after Jan. 1, 2018, must have a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches and a minimum tread depth of 9.5 inches.
When a door or a gate opens directly onto a stairway, a platform must be available and the swing of the door or gate must not reduce the platform’s usable depth less than:
- 20 inches for platforms installed before Jan. 1, 2018.
- 22 inches for platforms installed on or after Jan. 1, 2018.
A dockboard is a device that spans a gap or compensates for the difference in elevation between a loading platform and a transport vehicle. Dockboards include bridge plates, dock plates, and dock levelers.
Dockboards must be able to support their maximum intended loads.
Dockboards used on or after Jan. 1, 2018, must prevent vehicles from running off the edge.
Scaffolds and rope descent systems (1910.27)
Scaffolds must meet all of the construction industry requirements for scaffolds. (You’ll find the requirements in Division 3, Subdivision L). Those who erect, dismantle, move, or work from a scaffold must be also trained according to the requirements in 1926.454, Training requirements.
Rope descent and rope access systems (437-002-2027)
This new Oregon initiated rule establishes safety requirements for rope descent and rope access systems, which are used for tasks such as cleaning buildings, inspecting dams and bridges, and reaching difficult areas.
A rope descent system is a suspension system that allows a worker to descend in a controlled manner and stop at any point during the descent. A rope descent system usually consists of a roof anchorage, support rope, a descent device, carabiners or shackles, and a chair or seatboard.
A rope access system uses two ropes to reach a work area; one rope serves as the primary means of support and the second rope is used to stop a fall.
By Dec. 1, 2018:
- The building owner must inform the employer in writing that each permanent anchorage has been identified, tested, certified, and maintained so it can support at least 5,000 pounds.
- Employees must not use any permanent anchorage before the employer has obtained the written information from the building owner.
Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection (1910.28)
This rule requires employers to protect employees who are exposed to falls – generally four feet or more above a lower level – and falling objects. The rule identifies 15 walking-working surfaces where falls are possible. The table below summarizes the hazards and shows the options for protecting workers (which are covered in the subsequent walking-working surfaces rule: Fall protection systems and falling object protection, 1910.29).